Pour la rentrée 2012, les frais d'inscription à l'Université ne seront pas augmentés mais actualisés au niveau de l'inflation.
Alors que plusieurs pays ont fait le choix d'accroître très significativement la part du coût de scolarité financée par les étudiants, le gouvernement français a refusé d'entrer dans cette logique. Malgré le contexte budgétaire national et la situation financière des universités suite à la L.R.U., le choix politique a été de ne pas augmenter les droits annuels d'inscription mais de procéder à une actualisation au niveau de l’inflation 2011 (2,1%) soit +4 euros en Licence, +5 euros en Master et +8 euros en Doctorat. Le choix de cette mesure de simple actualisation vise à ne pas alourdir le coût de la rentrée des étudiants.
La volonté de démocratisation de l'accès aux études supérieures voulue par le gouvernement s'est également traduite par la revalorisation des bourses des étudiants à la hauteur de l'inflation et la sécurisation du versement du 10e mois de bourse, sans qu'il soit nécessaire de recourir aux artifices et aux reports de charges qui ont marqué les gestions précédentes.
Comme déjà annoncé, une concertation s'ouvrira prochainement sur la réforme du système d'aides aux étudiants et la participation active de l'ensemble des organisations étudiantes est souhaitée. Ce sujet pourra faire l'objet de contributions aux Assises de l'Enseignement Supérieur et de la Recherche.
Τον Σεπτέμβριο του 2012, τα δίδακτρα στο πανεπιστήμιο δεν θα αυξηθεί, αλλά προεξοφλούνται με τον πληθωρισμό.
Αν και πολλές χώρες έχουν επιλέξει να αυξήσει πολύ σημαντικά από το κόστος των διδάκτρων που χρηματοδοτείται από τους μαθητές, η γαλλική κυβέρνηση αρνήθηκε να εισέλθει σε αυτή τη λογική. Παρά την τρέχουσα κρατικό προϋπολογισμό και την οικονομική κατάσταση των πανεπιστημίων μετά την επιλογή της πολιτικής ΕΕΣ δεν ήταν να αυξήσει το ετήσιο τέλος για την εγγραφή, αλλά να κάνει μια ενημέρωση για το επίπεδο του πληθωρισμού το 2011 (2,1%) Άδεια είναι € 4, € 5 και 8 Διδακτορικό Μάστερ ευρώ. Η επιλογή αυτού του απλού μέτρου της προεξόφλησης δεν είναι να αυξήσει το κόστος των μαθητών. Περισσότερα...
• What the Independent Commission on Fees has missed in comparing the 2010 cycle of applications with 2012 is the Ucas review of the 2011 cycle which reported a drop of 20,000 in new applicants in the year before fees went up (Missing: 15,000 did not apply to university after fees hike, 9 August). The Guardian has consistently misreported a "surge" or a "rush" – your leader of 31 January, for example – well after the figures were known.
That fall last year was mainly among school leavers, with the biggest percentage drop from independent school students, so this year's figures are not unexpected. Nor should the continuing narrowing of the (still very wide) class gap be a surprise – the longer- term trend has been reported by the Higher Education Funding Council for England and the Scottish Funding Council. The policy paradox is that the new applicant profile prefers modern universities to the Russell Group, which reduced its UK intake by 3.5% between 2008 and 2011 when demand was high, but the government is sponsoring extra places in those institutions that do not want them and where demand is declining.
Une attention particulière sera accordée à l'encadrement des loyers et au respect de la réglementation sur les droits de scolarité.
Dans le détails, les droits d'inscription passent:
* en licence de 177 à 181 euros
* en master de 245 à 250 euros
* en doctorat de 372 à 380 euros
* en diplôme d'ingénieur de 584 à 596 euros
soit une augmentation d'environ 2% pour chaque cursus.
Le montant du ticket de restaurant universitaire passe à 3,10 euros.
Le droit annuel de participation aux dépenses de médecine préventive est de 5 euros contre 4,57 euros l'an dernier.
En cas de transfert d'inscription entre deux établissements, le remboursement des frais d'inscription à l'étudiant n'existe plus lorsque celui-ci s'opère à la fin du 1er semestre.
Jusqu'à présent, un transfert donnait lieu au remboursement des frais de scolarité sous réserve de 22 euros. Désormais l'établissement d'origine doit reverser la moitié du droit de scolarité correspondant à l'établissement d'accueil.
Ιδιαίτερη προσοχή θα δοθεί προς ενοικίαση ρύθμισης και της επιβολής του κανονισμού για τα δίδακτρα. Περισσότερα...
"We're trying to do as much as we are able and trying to avoid layoffs (by) ... using attrition and natural movement of employees to other places outside of the university," Chase said on Wednesday.
"But anytime you're in a mode where you're trimming expenses, it's natural to be concerned."
Aside from those positions, the U of R will make other savings by reducing the library budget by $253,000, information services by $159,000, facilities management by $204,000 and university services general contingency by $216,000. Read more...
In the face of the economic downturn, French higher education is beginning to debate openly the prospect of introducing higher tuition fees - but university presidents warn that the country must boost scholarships and state funding before making any change. The debate was sparked by comments made by Louis Vogel, head of France's Conference of University Presidents, which have lifted the lid on the highly contentious issue.
"If we do introduce [higher] fees, they must be lower at the undergraduate level and higher at the master's and PhD level," he said.
"It is our duty to encourage as many young people as possible to study and it is in those undergraduate courses that we have the most students from disadvantaged backgrounds."
Professor Vogel cautioned that fees must not be used as a stopgap measure to compensate for a lack of state funds.
"Our universities lack proper resources and our society must choose to properly fund higher education," he said, warning that "if France doesn't, it will lose its ranking in the world".
Hitting the brakes
Professor Vogel's willingness to discuss fees is timely, given signs that the European economic crisis is leading the French government to slam on the funding brakes after a sustained period of acceleration: the university budget has increased from £8 billion in 2007 to more than £12 billion today. Most tuition fees at public universities in France are incredibly low - between £150 and £300 per academic year.
Relatively free education remains a cornerstone of French egalitarianism and the introduction of higher fees has long been taboo: in an interview with French daily newspaper Le Monde in February, Vincent Berger, president of Paris Diderot University, said that such a move would be "unthinkable". But with public finances stretched, analysts warn that if funding is not addressed, there is a risk that the quality of higher education will suffer at a time when French youth needs it most.
"In times of crisis, getting a higher education diploma is a sure way to protect our youth against unemployment," said Eric Charbonnier, education analyst at the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development. He added that attitudes to higher education fees were changing.
"I've attended student union meetings where students have said they were ready to pay more if they had better job opportunities and the state introduced more grants for disadvantaged students," he said.
Despite low tuition fees, French universities are failing in their mission to attract applicants from poor backgrounds. Since 2007, access to higher education for young people from poor families has dropped from 36 per cent to 31 per cent, France's National Observatory of Student Life reports. But Mr Charbonnier warned that if higher fees were introduced, the French sector as a whole would need significant reform.
"Forty per cent of students who leave with a master's degree [lack key skills] after five years, and in the humanities that ratio reaches 60 or even 70 per cent," he said.
If students were required to pay higher fees, they would want to get their money's worth, he added.
And increasingly they are looking with interest at England as a model, where the burden of paying for higher education has passed from state to student. From September 2012 England’s universities will begin charging students up to £9,000 (US$14,000) a year in tuition fees. So are fees the future? The sustainability of Europe’s universities was on the agenda at the European University Association’s annual conference at the University of Warwick, UK, on 22-23 March.
According to EUA research, the impact of the economic crisis on public funding of higher education in Europe has so far hit hardest in the UK, Ireland, Latvia, Italy, Greece and Hungary with cuts of over 10%, while countries such as Spain, The Netherlands, Slovakia, Lithuania, Estonia and Romania are not far behind, with cuts of 5-10%. A conference working group on sustainable funding examined several higher education systems in Europe, their experience of introducing tuition fees and some lessons learned.
Professor Sir Steve Smith, vice-chancellor of the University of Exeter, spoke about the politically contentious introduction of fees in England (Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales have separate tuition fee systems).
Tuition fees of £1,000 a year were introduced by the UK’s ‘New Labour’ government for the first time in 1998 against a backdrop of falling state funding and rising student numbers, and student grants were replaced by student loans. In 2006 fees tripled and in 2010, under a new Conservative/Liberal Democrat coalition they increased again, with universities allowed to charge between £6,000 and £9,000 a year. And while the UK government expected only the top universities to charge up to the full £9,000, most are now charging this from September 2012. What impact has this had on student numbers, particularly those from poorer backgrounds? Applications generally for 2012-13 are down by 9%, although for the lowest socio-economic group the decrease is just 0.2%, Smith said. He attributes this to the fact that students only begin repaying when their income goes above £21,000 a year.
“The really big change is that funding has moved from the state to the student,” he said. “Government funding for teaching is cut by 80%, the block grant is gone, and it’s the students who now pay up to £9,000. And they increasingly see themselves as customers.”
Austria saw a similar shift from public to student financing of higher education as fees of €350 (US$470) a semester were introduced for the first time in 2001, only to be abolished again in 2009. Christoph Badelt, rector of Vienna University of Economics and Business, said that, after fees were introduced in 2000, student numbers initially dropped but then increased again. “There was no significant impact on student participation as a consequence of the introduction of tuition fees,” he said. Finland lies at the other end of the spectrum on tuition fees to England, with taxpayers footing the bill for all higher education, whether bachelor level, masters or Phd. Students also get around €500 a month in study grants and housing supplements. A 2009 reform created the country’s first two private universities, and they are now running a government pilot, in which they can charge €8,000 for masters students from non-EU countries. Finnish students oppose the trial, believing this to be the thin end of the wedge. Hannu Seristö, vice president of Knowledge Networks, Aalto University, which is running one of the pilots, said rather than application numbers falling with the introduction of fees, generally they have increased.
“The quality of applicants has also gone up,” he said. “Maybe non-European students can’t trust the product that’s free of charge, but when it has a €16,000 price tag it seems like it might be a high-quality product.”
Smith said the new fees regime in England means the power very much lies with the student as consumer. Universities should make sure the library is well stocked and accommodation is good, but more difficult is protecting the academic judgment at the heart of assessment.
“I’m actually quite pleased to see the rise of the student as informed co-creator of knowledge,” he said. “Recently somebody actually said, ‘Do you think it’s right, vice-chancellor, that students should be allowed to comment on the quality of our teaching?’ And I think, ‘They’re paying for this – so yes’.”
The new fee regime is also seeing a change in the way universities view their staff. “There has been a whole generation of scholars who defend themselves as being so good they don’t have to teach,” said Smith. “But now students are paying, suddenly people like myself value enormously pedagogy, especially those who come along and say ‘I really want to teach the first year’.”
Another conference working group, on European funding, heard that universities are being way too optimistic in their expectations of more funding from the EU. Research by the EUA found that three out of four universities expect to get more EU funds in the coming years. Currently contributions from the EU account for just around 3% of European universities’ income.
Jens Oddershede, rector of the University of Southern Denmark and chairman of Universities Denmark, said: “Most governments, certainly in our country, are looking to EU as a way of sorting their own budgetary problems, and 75% of us believe we can attract more funding from the EU. This is probably not possible. I think we are way too optimistic thinking how much funding we can have from the EU.”
Bureaucracy is also a major issue for universities seeking EU funding, the group was told. Thomas Estermann of the EUA told of one university finance department that had to put all other work on hold during several weeks of auditing visits. He expects universities from many more countries to be seeking EU funding in the coming years. “But we think it will be only those who have already invested and already know how to deal with the complexity that will be successful,” he said.
Following an in-depth analysis of data, they suggest that financing systems for higher education that charge a moderate level of tuition fees may stand a better chance of promoting access, equity, completion and positive outcomes for students if they are supported by means-tested grants and loans based on income-contingent repayments.
The second edition of the OECD’s Education Indicators in Focus (EIF) series examines countries’ relative success in controlling finances while continuing to promote access, equity and completion rates.
The report’s author, Jean-Daniel LaRock, says that many countries with strong university entry rates share one thing in common: robust student financial aid systems.
Four countries that have particularly well-developed systems – Australia, New Zealand, the United Kingdom and the United States – all have above-average university entry rates, despite having very high tuition fees.
And four low-tuition-fee countries that also support students with housing and other education-related expenses – Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden – have high entry rates as well.
But the type of aid is also critical. OECD research suggests that combining means-tested grants with income-contingent repayment of loans not only promotes access and equity but also leads to better outcomes for students.
“Australia and New Zealand have used this approach to mitigate the impact of high tuition fees, encourage disadvantaged students to enter higher education, and reduce the risks of high student loan indebtedness. By contrast, countries with no tuition fees but less-developed student aid systems – such as Ireland and Mexico – have lower entry rates.”
While the OECD research suggests that a “moderate” level of tuition fees backed by giving students opportunities to benefit from comprehensive financial aid increases access, makes best use of limited public funds and acknowledge the significant private returns to students, defining what “moderate” means is not easy.
The reports makes no predictions regarding the impact of the imminent steep rise in tuition fees in the UK. But the underlying message of the analysis suggests that if the higher fees are mitigated by robust financial support systems, neither university budgets nor access should be drastically affected.
A further trend is to differentiate between home and international students, or between fields of study, to keep fees overall at reasonable levels while generating enough income for higher education systems.
Countries such as Denmark and Sweden, with low or non-existent fees for their own students, have moved to increase tuition fees for students from outside the European Union.
And at least 14 OECD member and partner countries differentiate tuition fees among fields of study to account for the higher cost of operating some academic programmes. Australia has even attempted to link the level of fees to labour-market opportunities by lowering tuition fees for fields with skills shortages, in order to attract more students.
Outre-manche, on est loin des 300 euros annuels versés dans l’hexagone. Il faut compter entre 3000 et 4000 euros pour une année de licence (undergraduate) et jusqu’à 10000 euros pour une année de master (post-graduate).
Des frais traditionnellement élevés qui ont encore augmenté avec les mesures d’austérité prises par le gouvernement britannique en 2010. Une mobilisation sans précédent des étudiants avait d’ailleurs dégénéré en affrontements avec la police. Des troubles aux allures de « mai 68 », peu ordinaires dans un pays où la contestation ne fait pas vraiment partie des mœurs.
Pour l’année 2012, les facs anglaises récidivent. 23 d’entre elles ont décidé de faire payer à leurs étudiants le maximum autorisé par la loi: 9000 livres sterling (soit 10600 euros).
"Des supermarchés de la connaissance"
A des kilomètres du modèle français, le système universitaire britannique repose sur un principe: gratuité ne peut rimer avec qualité. Le philosophe Anthony Grayling a ouvert à Londres une licence en sciences humaines – New College of the Humanities - censée rivaliser avec les formations dispensées à Oxford ou Cambridge. Il compare les universités françaises à des « supermarchés de la connaissance ». « En France, les professeurs dispensent des cours magistraux dans des amphithéâtres bourrés à craquer. Il n’y a aucun suivi personnalisé. Et pour cause: comment consacrer du temps à chacun lorsqu’on s’adresse à des centaines d’étudiants ? », estime-t-il. Dans son établissement privé, rattaché à l’Université de Londres, Anthony Grayling souhaite restaurer le modèle britannique traditionnel des « one-to-one tutorials », entendre par là des séances d’approfondissement des connaissances en tête-à-tête avec les professeurs. Pour cela, les étudiants devront débourser 18000 livres sterling (21000 euros) chaque année. Au royaume d'Elizabeth II, l'excellence se paie cher.
Kim Catcheside explores the biggest HE issues of 2011 and suggests what ripple effects these may have next year. With students and Parliament at home, there is an opportunity to reflect not just upon the week, but upon the past and coming year. As is so often when a great deal has happened, 2011 feels as if it has been at once a very long and a very short year. It seems hardly possible that the Browne Review was published only 15 months ago and the HE White paper six months ago. Then commentators wrote about higher education being catapulted into the unknown but after a stream of publications and decisions the future is still pretty much a mystery.
The consequences of the government's visa controls are still playing out. This has already had a serious impact on the private sector but there could be dire consequences for Universities especially for those dependent on recruitment in the Indian subcontinent. I have heard reports of falls of up to 40% in the recruitment of overseas students to some post graduate courses. There must be the potential for a "double whammy" of reduced home and overseas students affecting the sustainability of some institutions in the next few years.
At the end of February HEFCE will launch the consultation into how what little funding it has left will be allocated from 2013/14. One of the many important questions to be settled is how courses in arts, creative and digital will be treated. These have attracted more government funding to date because they are more expensive to deliver than classroom based subjects such as humanities. There is concern that these subjects, so essential to many of our fastest growing businesses, will lose their extra cash. HEFCE will have very little money to spend on teaching and may struggle to honour obligations to support high cost and strategically important subjects such as STEM. There is speculation that it may have to rob poor Peter to pay Paul by cutting spending on widening participation.
2012 will see a struggle in the sector over whether or not the government should extend the free for all in AAB students to those with ABB or even BBB grades or equivalent. The 1994 Group wants "off quota" students to be extended, presumably to level the playing field which is currently skewed in favour of the Russell Group. But there are concerns that this would destabilise a system already overburdened by change.
We will also get more clarity on the future regulation of HE. There are big questions still to be answered about how and whether more private providers will get degree awarding powers. Again there is a debate about whether universities should be lobbying for light touch regulation or to have the bar set as high as possible to deter all but the most high quality private sector organisations.
But as the leaders in the HE sector scurry and plan, the Treasury will be keeping an eagle eye on the projected cost of the student loan system. The proportion of estimated bad debt has already climbed from 25% to 30%. I have heard informed speculation that it could easily get to 38%. It will be very sensitive to future graduate earnings and if we really are in for a decade or more of slow or no economic growth then wages may not grow as projected, leading to an even greater proportion of unpaid debt. That could break the system and policy makers would have to start all over again.