04 juin 2017

ADEF - ERGAPE Team - Professionalism and professionalisation of teaching, education and training professions

Our work examines the development of professional experience generated by a specific methodological framework for analysing activities carried out in different contexts, both individual and collective. We also consider the renormalisation processes that education professionals employ within these 'environments'. 
Changes caused by prescriptive requirements can impact upon professionalism when this collides with the way in which teachers envisage their professional activities. The key question lies in determining to what extent this affects the conceptual frameworks of the profession and its job areas. We also need to question the significance of the term 'new professionalisms' or 'emerging professionalisms' in a context of job insecurity. More...

Posté par pcassuto à 15:30 - - Permalien [#]


ADEF - ERGAPE Team - The knowledge transmission/appropriation process

Job analysis has always considered an examination of the activities undertaken at work to be a prerequisite for professional training, both in terms of identifying problems or needs and also defining training content. It is from this perspective that the ERGAPE team will contribute to the development of the professional knowledge 'transmission/appropriation process', whether in a professional situation (between experienced teachers, mentors and novices) or in a training centre situation (analysis of practices, simulation, etc.). The idea is to account for the way in which the ergonomics of the activity question the relationship between knowledge formalised in SHS, which is supposed to equip us to reflect upon professional practices, and 'indigenous' or professional knowledge. In the context of teacher training, students are just as foreign to these fields of knowledge, which nevertheless set out the boundaries of their future profession. Understanding the complex links between these two kinds of knowledge - links that teacher training has difficulty forging - is an important issue in education sciences. A central preoccupation, from this point of view, is the way in which we take into account the knowledge produced by activity analysis in training design. More...

Posté par pcassuto à 15:29 - - Permalien [#]

ADEF - ERGAPE Team - A Priority Education professions observatory

Most of the proposed research will be aligned with this observatory and thus adhere to ergonomic methods of intervention. The aim of this is both epistemic and transformative and is part of establishing an 'operating framework'. Firstly, knowledge must be produced on the real work of education professionals operating in various workplaces, at the request and with the assistance of professionals who are striving to provide, maintain or rebuild meaning in the work they carry out to meet these new requirements.
The observatory is considered a 'living laboratory' for the study of professional activities undergoing a process of construction. From our cultural-historical perspective, we aim to identify, in this construction, the historical traces making up the activities studied as the emerging traits of its current (re)structuring. Here the scientific challenge - and the difficulty - lies in successfully identifying, from these potentially structuring events, contingencies related to the diversity of situations. The full interest of an analysis of this kind of activity which, for years, has been conducted by indirect methods, comes through in its ability to take into account the contradictions, tradeoffs and dilemmas that professionals face. These can be renewed and become institutionalised in the design and organisation of these new work situations. This observatory will be a place where difficulties encountered can be diagnosed and contradictions overcome (or not) by the teaching staff and executive committees of the Ambition Success Networks.
An evaluation will then be carried out of the impact of this research and involvement in terms of transforming work situations and the professional development of those involved. Cooperation between practitioners and researchers and constant consultation with professionals will be essential to this process. This way of testing the methods used to evaluate research and its social efficiency is almost unique. We are aware of some minor influence of scientific knowledge on educational policies and the pedagogical practices of teachers and those working in education at a senior level. This is very limited, however, because these individuals have not necessarily identified with the results of research thus far. The approach proposed here is an alternative to this recurring criticism. Firstly, because these results come in response to a request from interested parties who are an integral part of the research. Secondly, because their ownership is reflected on a practical level through transformations of educational tools or projects which are collectively validated, including by those further up the hierarchy. Here, we are at the crux of the downward prescription/upward prescription dichotomy and the renormalisation activities developed by work collectives. It would appear that this 'local proximity' reduces the gap between social demand and its scientific handling, as well as the time difference between the 'results' and their 'application'. This will require further analysis. More...

Posté par pcassuto à 15:28 - - Permalien [#]

ADEF - ERGAPE Team - Programme 2: Education and vocational training professions

The context of the reform of teacher training and the emphasis on Masters degrees, with the principle of 'lifelong learning', challenges the current training system, which is now taking unprecedented new directions. The next four years will be an opportunity to put the results of previous research to the test in the light of these changes and to open up new empirical fields. This research programme will continue in accordance with three complementary areas of focus: 
a) Analysis of the work of newly qualified teachers: this approach opens with the study of provisions related to the actions of novice teachers, from a developmental perspective. The emphasis is placed upon findings related to activities at work in processes of transforming these provisions, rather than solely on their characterisation, as is the case with other research. The aim is to test the developmental significance of the hypothesis of a 'beginner genre', showing that this does not only relate to newly qualified teachers, but also experienced teachers confronted with a transformation of their work. This might be the result of 'downward' requirements (related to the organisation of the work) or 'upward' requirements (stemming from the very subject of the work). Here, once again, we will draw upon a dual approach - both ergonomic and didactic. 
b) Training consultancy: the reform of teacher training is transforming the principle of university study combined with classroom experience, as it has operated thus far, especially in terms of on-the-job training. Our previous results showed the importance of allowing the advisor and the trainee to jointly build the training environment, considered as a work situation. Far from taking a shared social reality for granted, the historicity of this appears as the product of the work of those involved. What interests us in particular is the historical evolution of professional actions and knowledge generated by prescriptive requirements and the resources drawn upon by those involved in order to take ownership of (transform) them through various ways of combining study and on-the-job training (simultaneous - alternating - successive - juxtaposed?) 
c) Training for 'new forms of teaching': curricular changes in 'art history' at middle school level are destabilising both disciplinary expertise and professional know-how. How can both trainers and teachers take control of these new requirements which are causing shifts in disciplinary history and professional culture? We will analyse actual classroom practices from the point of view of the instrumentalisation of teaching, its effectiveness and the knock-on effects of this activity: overcompensation, work overload, fallback or job satisfaction strategies. More...

Posté par pcassuto à 15:26 - - Permalien [#]

ADEF - ERGAPE Team - Programme 1: The work of education professionals in educational establishments

Organisational dimensions and the development of professional activities: The 'Ambition Success Networks' (RAR), which are profoundly altering the form of schools in France, raise several questions. These are linked to the organisation of the work of all those involved (inspectors, head teachers and principals, primary and middle school teachers, etc.) as well as the conditions under which these professions respond to prescriptive requirements which push their limits. The development of professional activities will be studied within the collective and organisational dimensions brought together for the creation of educational resources and job area rules. This research programme will allow us to revisit the knowledge, particularly sociological knowledge, produced on the work of these various professionals, which will be studied independently and within other conditions and organisational frameworks. 
Development of teaching activities and new tools: this programme will examine more closely how the category of 'pupils with learning difficulties' affects the organising function of teachers' work. This project will also aim to draw out the relationship between 'downward' requirements and 'upward' requirements - derived, on the one hand, from the nature of the work and, on the other, from the sources of the requirements (students receiving specific support, stakeholders). Here, the various tools teachers draw upon for support constitute a special area for studying the way in which the work of teachers has been transformed. This is considered both in terms of its objective dimension (the organisation of the study conditions) and its subjective dimension (the effects of this work on the teachers themselves). A dual approach - both ergonomic and didactic - will allow us to examine the relationship between didactic action and teachers' activities, especially as regards 'new devices'. To do this, special attention will be paid not only to the organisation of the study conditions, but also the collective dimensions implied by the teachers' organisational activities within their workplace, the subjective dimensions linked to the activity of organising the pupils' workplace, and also patterns of investment in this dual activity and the compromises it requires. More...

Posté par pcassuto à 15:24 - - Permalien [#]


ADEF - ERGAPE Team - Areas of focus for the team's work

In a context of reforms, educational policies (both national and international) contribute to diversifying and complicating the requirements, standards and frameworks of teachers' work. They modify the workplace in educational establishments and contribute to the transformation of the working activities of the various education professionals, often causing discomfort at work.
The ERGAPE team aims to organise its research programme around three areas of focus: a) prescriptive requirements and their development; b) new ways of organising the work (whether in establishments or teacher training) and c) the study of professional activities being (re)constructed by both experienced staff and beginners.
As part of this perspective, the methodological progress achieved in the previous contract will be continued. The aim, on the one hand, will be to develop a systematic analysis of prescriptive texts, which is uncommon in the education sciences, examining the methods used in accordance with a historico-cultural perspective. On the other hand, the idea is to combine two types of indirect methods. The first are those used in SHS by disciplines such as sociology or history, which consist of building up case studies and ensuring a valid comparison. This would appear essential when considering the changing ways in which work is being organised. The second are those more focused upon clinical activity, which allow us to capture what ergonomists call the 'subjective experience of work'. More...

Posté par pcassuto à 15:22 - - Permalien [#]

ADEF - GESTEPRO Team

The GESTEPRO team (Research Group on Scientific, Technological and Professional Education) is engaged in research aiming to investigate the role of semiotic or material instruments (graphic intermediaries, artifacts) used in the work of teachers and pupils. This is considered from the point of view of teaching-learning processes at work in science and technology lessons, as well as professional training in industry. This applies to primary, secondary and higher education, both in terms of the general education curriculum and also vocational training. More...

Posté par pcassuto à 12:05 - - Permalien [#]

ADEF - ERGAPE Team

The ERGAPE (Ergonomics of the work of education professionals) team organises its research programme around three focal points: a) prescriptive requirements and their development; b) new ways of organising the work (whether in schools or teacher training) and c) the study of professional activities being (re)constructed by both experienced staff and beginners. More...

Posté par pcassuto à 12:04 - - Permalien [#]

ADEF - EFE Team

The EFE (Education, Training, Evaluation) team focuses its work on issues related to the educational relationship in all social sectors in which it is practised.
One of the team's areas of focus is professional teaching in education, currently with regard to the following sectors:
- Initial and continuing training
- Health education
- The use of ICT in education
- Road safety education and
- Professional support in human resources.
The research results are put into perspective in relation to the training for the job areas studied.
The work aims to make sense of educational practices and thus the processes of learning, teaching and assessment (in this team, assessment is not limited to compliance control but covers all existing assessment models in education). The aim is to develop a professional culture in these different social worlds. These processes underly the acquisition of knowledge (by the individual being educated) and the engineering (on the side of the educator), as well as their inter-influences.
The ethical issues embedded in the history of the educational relationship make sense both in the context of an anthropology of the subject educated and in the context of learning organisations, which are vectors of collective intelligence.
For each piece of research, the methods used are adapted to the researcher's project and cover the whole spectrum of methods which can be used in education, from the experimental to the clinical. Similarly, all theoretical frameworks can be used provided they are deemed relevant to an understanding of the educational relationship.
This team of EFE research lecturers are united by close and regular association for at least two quadrennia, through joint teaching and research projects. Indeed, both the professional Masters and research Masters' options back up the research team's projects. More...

Posté par pcassuto à 12:03 - - Permalien [#]

ADEF - ACADIS Team - Other elements

We are working on the ethical rules defining our relationship as researchers to those involved in education, such as teachers and pupils, whose behaviour we capture to analyse, interpret and understand. The annual ViSA seminar allows us to work on these issues. In a more general sense, when we conduct experiments and enquiries, participants are informed of the identity of the researcher, the purpose of the study and the dissemination of results. Anonymity is guaranteed. Parental permission is required in the event that the pupils studied are children. Nevertheless, these are new questions and we will closely monitor the effects of the increasingly rapid process whereby 'real' images are processed and become the subject of analysis and key points in an 'editorialisation' process.” More...

Posté par pcassuto à 12:02 - - Permalien [#]